By Okoronkwo Ikechukwu Francis
Department of Fine Arts and Design
University of Port Harcourt
Post-civil war Nigerian cultural landscape is important due to some informal engagements by artists and practitioners within the cultural field. Typical of these interventions, are the activities of Aka group of exhibiting artists located at Enugu in Nigeria. This paper traces the activities of Aka Circle of Exhibiting Artists as a lamp-holder professional artist’s group that have instigated the emergence of professional artists’ collectives in Nigeria with a view to renegotiating the group’s contribution within the threshold of postmodernism in Nigeria. Within the context of time and space of its pioneer activities, the paper locates the socio/cultural context from which Aka engaged its activities in order to understand the challenges and promises from which they operated. Through a re-reading of works exhibited, texts written by scholars and interview with some of the members of Aka Circle of Exhibiting Artists, this paper locates Aka’s role as a vital contribution that have continued to influence professionalism in the practice of arts both in Nigeria, Africa and calls on artists, curators, art critics and others within the cultural sector should build on this worthy foundation
Keywords: Aka, Nigeria, Post-war, Collectives.
In the first paragraph of the essay, ‘The fulfillment of a vision: Aka in the Eyes of a Young Art Critic’, Ozioma Onuzulike began with lyrics from Kudo Eresia Eke’s dub-poetry, “I know a fire”, and Onuzulike re-echoed, “I too, know a fire, a fire that has illuminated, with laser-beam intensity, the artistic landscape of Nigeria and beyond”. Incidentally, that was the last edition of Aka Circle of Exhibiting Artists’ outing at the time of this writing. Like Onuzulike, I too know a fire, a fire that kindled my and many other young artists’ desire towards the deep, the meaningful and the global in pursuing a career in visual art. This fire had been, even before my consciousness to take art as both career and profession. The fire had eased away the darkness of post-civil-war era in the artistic landscape of Nigeria, bringing with it a certain kind of visibility ‘see and be seen’ as catalyst for the country’s cultural sector. This fire is wild enough that it has transgressed the cartographical delineation of Nigeria; it has fueled art to constitute itself into light and expose hidden things into the consciousness of the living. This fire that Kudo Eresia Eke or Ozioma Onuzulike refers to, is akin to the light that a group of 13 talented artists – ; Tayo Adenaike, Chris Afuba, El-Anatsui, Chike Aniakor, Obiora Anidi, Ifedioramma Dike, Chike Ebebe, Chris Echeta, Nsikak Essien, Bona Ezeudu, Boniface Okafor, Samson Uchendu, Obiora Udechukwu, and later entrants Chika Okeke-Agulu and Tony Umunna beamed on the socio-cultural environment of Nigeria from 1986 (a period stretching from the end of the Nigerian civil war to the recent past) to 2005, through their exhibitions and writings. The group is the Aka Circle of Exhibiting Artists, an artists’ collective that operated from Enugu in South-Eastern Nigeria during the period stated above.
This paper engages the activities and influences of the Aka group of exhibiting artists on a dais of ‘destiny’s child’ within a post-war Nigerian context, with a view to renegotiating the group’s contribution within the threshold of postmodernism. From their inaugural exhibition at Enugu and Lagos in April and May 1986 respectively, the group continues to wield enormous influence on the country’s art, artists and artistic public even beyond Nigeria. In this paper therefore, an attempt is made to locate the socio/cultural context from which Aka as a group operated in order to understand the challenges and promises from which they operated. To gather materials for this paper, the writer relied on documented sources and interviews with some of the Aka members like Professor Chike Aniakor, Chris Afuba and Bona Ezeudu.
From its inception to the many exhibitions by the group, they did not mince words in their catalogues to announce to the public that “AKA is not an art movement or a school but a circle of exhibiting artists.” To explicate this point further in the group’s mission statement, Aniakor explains that the group is “A forum for the interaction of kindred spirits, professional artists – Nigerians and expatriate – working in Anambra State.” Other scholars writing in the group’s catalogues had observed that though the group wouldn’t like to be identified as an artistic movement, they had already broken beyond this boundary of their mission statements to mount the panoply of a “highly anticipated and enthusiastically discussed event in modern Nigerian art, perhaps the precursor of any such collective activity and forum on the continent.”
The period of the eighties in South East Nigeria typifies ‘a post civil war era’, coming on a platitude of a placatory admission by the federal government of Nigeria of ‘no victor, no vanquish’ and its programs of the three ‘Rs’ (Reconstruction, Rehabilitation and Reconciliation) to the people of the South Eastern region. The promise was at best equivocations from the authority of the Federal Government of Nigeria. However, this situation ironically spurred the Easterners to embark on self help projects. University of Nigeria Nsukka was already an available beehive for ingenuity and scholarly engagements. In its Arts Faculty, it attracted reputable scholars like; Chinua Achebe, Ossie Enekwe, Helen Chukwuma, Donatus Nwoga, Uche Okeke, Chike Aniakor, Obiora Udechukwu, El-Anatsui and a host of others spread across the Faculties of the University. Enugu, the nearest metropolitan center to Nsukka was former head quarter city of the defunct Biafra government and hence Eastern Region. Due to these underpinnings in the psycho-social setting of the group, Gani Odutokun notes that, “Having grown out of the ashes of war, it will be fair to expect of the group efforts that will be superficial – for he that has survived the minefield cannot ignore the essence of the truths that could lie buried.” On the other hand is the influence of Nsukka Art school with ‘Uli Art Movement’ and its newer acolytes cueing behind Uche Okeke, Chike Aniakor and Obiora Udechukwu.
Enugu, enjoyed privileges of playing host to some international cultural centers even before the civil war; The British Council, the French Center, Americans were also there. Reminiscing on Enugu’s socio-political setting, Chris Afuba states that “we had companies that were operating and some company representatives that were selling cars like J. Allen, John Holt, the Mercedes Benz people and even the UTC” adding that by the time of Aka’s inception what remained was at best a residue of the former multinational presence in Enugu:
When we started Aka, some of these multinational concerns were no longer around but because of the culture of exhibitions that they have generated in the area coupled with some enlightened Nigerians who actually appreciated the arts like Pius Okigbo, Elder Kalu and others living in Enugu constituting an active art public, Enugu was naturally a right choice for Aka to operate from.
It was within this socio-cultural setting in 1985 that Obiora Udechukwu who may be referred to as a living casualty of the war (because he had to relocate his study from Ahmadu Bello University to Nsukka at the outset of the war) suggested the idea of an Artists’ collective first to his two other faculty members at Nsukka; Chike Aniakor and El-Anatsui. Thereafter other members joined them as a group. Afuba, confirms that “It was Obiora that informed us and to the best of my knowledge the idea emanated from him.” Aniakor partly corroborates Afuba by tracing pre-inaugural sessions of the group and what led to its formation as being informed by the need to develop a platform to challenge the status-quo. He says “We needed a change of paradigm, especially, as everything was concentrated in Lagos as the center of Nigeria. So, we need to interrogate the centrality of art practice in Lagos”. He further reveals that one of the high points of the group is the interrogation of an existing “center/periphery paradigm.”
At the international level, not until the sixties, the modernist agenda of the West held sway with monolithic and hegemonic structures of power. If we can turn with a little confidence to the flux or centrifuge of; philosophy, sociology and even global politics of the period between the 1960s to the 80s which being vital to Aka group’s contextual framework, a clearer understanding of its contribution within the Nigerian and African artistic development will suffice
At the global level, Foucault with some other late twentieth century philosophers under Nietzsche’s influence of post-structuralism had started to question modernism. Foucault for instance accepting Nietzsche’s “claims that systematizing methods produce reductive social and historical analyses, and that knowledge is perspectival in nature, requiring multiple viewpoints to interpret a heterogeneous reality.” This calls to mind Jean-Francois Lyotard seeing the “archetypal killing factory of Modernism, Auschwitz” as the breaking point and eventual death of modernism. Charles Jencks writing on Lyotard observed that these death camps under modernisms canopy “was so successful in its rationalization and mass-production that, Lyotard argues, it ushered in its opposite, postmodernism”. In its quest for inclusivity, postmodernism holds that every human perspective is nothing more than a breathing aggregate of the structures of power and contends that we “cannot stand apart from demands and identities that these structures and discourses confer upon us.”
No longer do we need a special fetish to engage the realms of truth or knowledge in the present dispensation. Truth or Knowledge had become system-dependent within cultures and individuals. The formation of ‘Spiral’ in New York “in response to the march on Washington for Jobs and Freedom in August 1963”, or ‘Thupelo’ in South Africa in 1998 are all such actions which influenced developments of arts in their various countries. To add to these examples even though it predates postmodern era is the activities of a group of artists in Toronto Canada during 1960 to 1931 known as ‘The Group of Seven’. In an introduction to the group’s retrospective exhibition in 2008, Brandi Leigh notes that, “the group became known as pioneers to a new Canadian art.”
Aka Group of Exhibiting Artists on the Threshold of Postmodern Nigeria.
The emergence of collectives in the Nigeria contemporary art scene was generally fuelled by the need of artists to consolidate their trade, especially in an environment that lacked instituted indigenous cultural platforms. Aka in the history of Nigerian art, occupies a very important position for its role of instigating awareness to artists on the need to connect to contemporaneous global trends in the way they perceive their vocation and also that artist can facilitate their development and visibility like the ‘Spiral’ in New York for example or from what others elsewhere have done through self organized and managed platforms taking a priori position, it is possible to deduce that if, “Art values are closely connected with all aspects of social life and with related modes of behavior.” It then follows that art will always put into context the consummated past, the living present and projected future of its society. Aka through its cultural activism, presented to the world, new paradigms of seeing African societies; its cosmology, people, art and artists from an insider perspective. Unlike the once comfortable mono-cultural and arrogant narratives of western modernism’s view of a primitive Africa that is unable to make meaningful contribution to global discourses, Aka through its exhibition told an authentic story of the African condition using the contemporaneous discursive platform of postmodernism.
In postmodernism, ‘grand narrativism’ gave way to the authority of the self or everyone through the construction of reality via language. These developments, along other interventions not cited here, created ennobling condition for plurality of non-hegemonic cultural narratives of which the Aka group rode on to inaugurate its presence in the artistic landscape of Nigeria and Africa. Like a popular Nigerian singer will say “everything you do na God win”, this became a win –win situation for cultural elements that had been displaced or marginalized during the modern era. With this, every voice becomes authentic in relation to its perspective. Sylvester Ogbechie, notes that “through the integrated intensity of their works, AKA gives a sound negation to the ultimate dehumanization of man.”
Artist : El Anatsui. Title: Bedsheet, Aluminum and Copper wire. Dimension: Variable Installation. Source: 2005 Aka Exhibition Catalogue.
It is appropriate to locate Aka group in the same mold of reacting against monolithic structures of power perceived as anti-progressive, or any sort of charismatic authority that slides into immobility. Aka in taking this approach disavows of any iconic power source or fixed authorities by reacting; to the center/periphery paradigm, valorizing difference and frontally engaging the authorities through facilities available to the artist.
Taking a look at the creative activities of Aka Circle of Exhibiting Artists; the body of works, compendium of literature from the group’s in-house writer (Chike Aniakor) and other scholars, it is evident that the group adopted a super panoptic approach to deriving influences from multiple sources in order to construct new cultural forms. Within this eclectic approach, one can understand the hybridization of influences; as in the super realism/surrealism of Boniface Okafor’s dream-world events that connects the subconscious reality of an African experience to a pre-existing modernist surrealism of Andre Breton, Salvador Dali or Giorgio de Chirico. The shock stocked experimental works of Nsikak Essien that have been severally identified with the avant- garde is another example. Being that this movement in art history marks the lull of modernism and ushers postmodernism, it becomes easier to see his direction towards this global movement. It is within this trend that one can also locate Samson Uche’s postmodernist sculptures. In Bona Ezeudu’s paintings, is a sense of his highly sensitive colour abstractions which involve the viewer into a dialogic relationship with the painting as a continuous creative process of an artwork. Obiora Udechukwu succeeded in extending the presence of a hitherto local art form that was predominantly practiced by traditional Igbo women on wall and human flesh to a global level by his neo-Uli experiments using new supports and medium of colours. The visual poetry of Udechukwu’s work share with his former teacher Aniakor who had mastered the technique of spontaneity in lyrical lines that his works are now abiding compendium of neo-African lyrical/poetical drawings and paintings. The work of their colleague El-Anatsui compels global followership, his style had moved through many stages to his current use of glittering aluminum wine covers to narrate the story of Africa and has won him the Golden Lion Award in the just concluded 57 Venice Biennale. Afuba’s new romance with shadows in his organic, rhythmic and linear style using mild steel clearly shows the Nsukka School ‘Uli’ idiom in a creative marriage with new expressive styles in sculpture. His incorporation of the interior architectural space of display introduces the elements of ‘shadow’ to what would ordinarily had been a two- dimensional or relief sculptural piece and readily locates his sculptures as a postmodernist installation work (see fig.2). Echeta brought in new dimensions to ceramics; that which weaves story telling with high dexterity in the manipulation of clay with painterly tendencies. Ifedioramma Dike in the same spirit of breaking traditional boundaries as is typical of the group had evolved the textile medium beyond its utilitarian domain to push it into mobile painting and sculpture. The newer entrant Chika Okeke-Agulu has moved on into art historical writing, curating and currently ranking among the global best. All other traces of different art trends that can be found in various degrees of the group’s individual works point to a tacit admittance to some principles of postmodernism.
Artist: Chris Afuba.
Title: The New Moon, 242cm x 110cm, 1989. `Source: 4th Annual exhibition, Aka 1989.
What is breathtaking beyond the group’s works is the organic composition of the group’s creative strategies that recognize each artist’s creative voice as a vital contribution towards a plurality of narratives. Within AKA project, contemporary art in Nigeria became more apprehensive to the global politics of postmodernity and its responsibility to present to the Nigerian and the world in general its own narratives through a cohesive plurality of voices. Could the apprehension of the postmodern tenets be what Aniakor refers to as “Anyu kota mmamili onu ogba ufufu.”
Aka Circle of Exhibiting Artists: Through the Lens of Other Artists and Critics.
The focus of this paper seemed almost concluded if only we are engaging the question; did Aka Circle of Exhibiting Artists influence the art terrain of post-war Nigeria in any way? But from the title of the essay above, there are other variables which are equally important. The Aka exhibiting group at first relied only on its in-house writer (Chike Aniakor) to generate texts for its exhibitions until 1990, though in interviews with two of the members ( Aniakor and Afuba) it was obvious that the writings reflect the thoughts of other members. They sat together and each artist expressed what he had put into his works. From that point the master wordsmith crafts his lyrical essays. Individual artists chose personal themes; the idea was creativity at the professional level of engagements. The outcome of this process is what Aniakor says “was visually engaging and interrogating enough that each time we had exhibitions the hall filled to the brim with people. Even at a point Odumegwu Ojukwu came himself.”
After 1989, the group accommodated essays for their exhibition catalogues from some of the people that have looked forward to its exhibition especially among fellow artists. Ogbechie, notes that “Speaking with several voices amplified by a union of aims, the artists presented their perception of man, of society, life and the cosmos” To deduce from Ogbechie’s comment on the focus of Aka, will be to find the operational meaning of what constitutes an artistic movement and at what point is this concept different from an artistic collective?
One would rather propose that there are no fixed rules that constitute an artistic movement. However, any artistic group that shares the same artistic ideals, style, and technical/creative approach within a timeframe may be termed a movement. It is imperative to note therefore that with few exceptions, the branding of artists within artistic movements had always happened retrospectively and it has always served the critic’s search for meaning of what they are yet to come to terms with. On the other hand, Wikipedia provides a succinct understanding of what constitutes an artists’ collective as “an initiative that is the result of a group of artists working together, usually under their own management, towards shared aims”. These interests are as varied as the ‘Group of Seven’ in Toronto which emerged out of the need (but not limited) of sharing a common studio space, or ‘The Spiral’ in New York formed out of concerns for racial recognition of rights and privileges or the South African group ‘Thupelo’ which reacted out of need to integrate people at the periphery for the purpose of visibility. With a plethora of ‘isms’ that have dogged contemporary art practices since the beginning of the twentieth century, one will understand the quick dissociation of the group from the ‘movement’ appendage.
Ola Oloidi had called to question whether this group can totally remove the nomenclature of an artistic movement from themselves. This, according to Oloidi, is because, even though “it claims no official ideology, yet its outpourings are ideologically stable” Gani Odutokun seems to agree with the above position. However, Dele Jegede notes that after ten years of exhibiting, the group had “conclusively proved that the notion of a school of artists espousing common stylistic, ideological or canonical tenets is not applicable.” Comparing Jegede with the understanding of the terms movement and collectives provided above, one can accept the group’s rebuttal of any such appendage of movement to its activities.
As a collective, with set goals, Odutokun had enthused that their contributions so far had “inspired and encouraged many other artists in the country in the direction of experimentations and hard work and this is an even greater contribution for now.” In the same year, Olu Oguibe observes that the Aka exhibitions had; “provided the art public with not only an opportunity to enjoy a focused encounter with individual artists, but also a platform for embracing and assessing what we must consider the cutting edge of contemporary Nigeria art.”
Jegede posed a vital question in the group’s 1995 catalogue from which this paper derives its seminal interest when he asked:
In an age when the discourse has shifted to postmodernism and its liberating (or stultifying) tentacles (depending on which side of the isle you stand), how does AKA project a front that locates creativity within an ambiance that is cognizant of, or receptive to on-going debate in the field of contemporary art?
This question by a contemporary of the group may have found its answer five years earlier by Oloidi’s observation that the group has come to be one of the most endearing since the 1960s in terms of “artistic longevity, internationalization, pictorial or sculptural sincerity, consistent and persistent professionalism.” Similarly, Onuzulike opines that in their ‘hey days’, “AKA made an indelible impact by charging the country’s artistic landscape through critical issues and debates that the group raised annually.
It may amount to mere verbal aggrandizement of the group’s contribution to Nigeria and Africa in general if this paper will be unable to mention younger groups that have benefitted from the Aka example. Onuzulike drew our attention to this point when he asserts in Aka 2005 catalogue that the group had set the pace and standard to younger groups in keeping to its tradition of high quality works and documentation through modest catalogues. He cites some existing groups like; “Pan-African Circle of Artists (PACA), Visual Orchestra, Okanga, Echoes, Rivulets from Within, Bottles and others all sprang from the Eastern (Enugu/Nsukka) axis” Other groups which can be added to Onuzulike’s lists are; ‘Angala’, ‘Mangroove Artists’ both from Port Harcourt, the ‘Nogh Nogh’ group of Zaria, ‘ArtZero’, ‘Dept of Field’, ‘Black Box photographers’ collectives’, ‘3rd Black Heritage Group’ and many others located throughout the country. Despite Aka’s influence one may not confidently say that all these younger and newer artists collectives reflect the high standard of documentation and commitment as seen in Aka but one thing is common and that is that almost all these groups make reference to the standards set by the Aka Circle of Exhibiting artists as motivating factor to their own formation. It could be due to this spread of influence that Aniakor says that, “the feeling that we came at the right time and made a strategic contribution and fill in the gap in the development of art in Nigeria is a worthy achievement. If it touched many lives to seeing art from a better perspective then, we have made our mark.”
In a separate interview with Uche James Iroha the sculptor turned photographer who as a student in the University of Port Harcourt had shared similar sentiments with this writer as regarding the creative influence of Aka attesting to the group’s influence on his bringing other photographers together in the formation of the ‘Depth of Field Photographers Collective’ in 2001, he says that, “The Aka group influence is a remarkable example for newer generations of Nigerian artists . Within the period of the 80s in Nigeria’s art evolution, it became glaring that it was easier to gain local and international attention as a group than as individual practitioners.” This module proved successful with the ‘Depth of Field’s’ participation in ‘SNAP JUDGEMENTS” curated by Okwui Enwezor at the international center for photography in new York in 2006. This worthy foundation had served as an informal blueprint for artists in Nigeria. Iroha says that:
Since then, there have been pockets of collectives and collaboration of diverse manner emerging in Nigeria with the most interesting thing being that this module has evolved beyond the traditional media of painting and sculpture. It has moved on to the present reality of postmodernism where we are presented with performances and installations.
As a pebble cast into the sea sends ripples far beyond its entry point at the water’s surface, the creative activities of Aka circle of exhibiting artists still reechoes its ripples within and beyond the artistic/cultural landscape of Nigeria. This has been evident in the recent activities of the aforementioned groups and a host of others too numerous to mention in this essay.
With the AKA project, contemporary art in Nigeria became more apprehensive to the global politics of postmodernity, its responsibility of presenting through known and acceptable communication formats, its own narratives as told by individuals. The mode of the group’s internal working mechanisms further reflect a postmodern style of plurality, recognition of perspectives and mantra of ‘see and be seen’. Its hybridization of influences and internationalization of what would have remained local professional practices comfortably made this a major ‘lamp-holder-group’ of professional artists in Africa whose worthy examples continue to shine the light to the next direction for practicing and younger practitioners within the ever growing art sector.
However, to write about Aka group as if in retrospect, appears to me an unjustifiable and hasty injustice. This is simply because most of the members are still active players in the field: of practice, theory, teaching, curating where they ferret new metaphors to defining new frontiers as they are connected globally to their different interests. One wonders if Aka Circle of Artists despite having achieved some feats mentioned in this paper will not set similar examples as other international art groups had done in their environments. Artists groups like; the Canadian ‘Group of Seven’, the United States’ ‘Spiral’ and the South African ‘Thupelo’ that have left behind their activities, monumental structures that continue to point to their legacies and have metamorphosed into truly global artistic structures for continued cultural engagements with other cultures.
In a country with over one hundred and seventy million people it becomes a challenge on the bourgeoning number of curators, art dealers, art enthusiasts and other cultural platforms to cash into the existing pedigree of the group to continue hosting the group’s exhibitions, digitizing its images and texts for online sourcing, while also developing a more enduring and tangible structures that future generations will reference to. Lets connect once again to Onuzulike’s contribution in the first few paragraphs of this essay and join him to suggest and ask simultaneously, that the need for a website that contains all the literature and images on Aka is more cogent now more so, when getting their catalogues is like searching for gold on a brick wall. And like Onuzulike, one asks “Do we have professional Curators in Nigeria?” who will take the baton assuming age has become a limiting factor for the activities of the members of Aka Circle of Exhibiting Artists working as a group?
Ozioma Onuzulike, “The Fulfilment of a Vision: AKA in the Eyes of a Young Art Critic (Enugu: Pearls and Gold, 2005.).5
see the back cover of Aka 86 inaugural exhibition catalogue. The first thirteen were the original members until the 14th edition in the year 2000 when Chika Okeke-Agulu and Tony Umunna made their debut with the group. See also Aka: Along with us in the millennium. 2000 for more information.
The author visited Calabar and Enugu in order to interview Chike Aniakor and Chris Afuba in their studios.
A Note on AKA’ (86:p5) and contained in the beginning sections of all subsequent catalogues.
see Dele Jegede, The Way Forward: Aka 1995, p. 7, Sylvester Ogbechie , A Pause at the Threshold: Aka 1990, p.11, Gani Odutokun A Perennial Fountain: Aka 1995, p.8, Ozioma Onuzulike , The Fulfillment of a Vision: AKA in the Eyes of a Young Art Critic Aka 2005, p5, Ola Oloidi, A Force in the Nigerian Artistic Circle: Aka 1990, p.12 Olu Oguibe, Signs of Difference: Aka 1995, p.11 and a host of other writers
Oguibe op.cit p.11
Odutokun, op.cit p.9
Chris Afuba, interview with the author, August 25, 2015
Chike Aniakor interview with the author, August 3, 2015
Douglas Kellner and Steven Best.1991, Postmodern Theory.( New York: The Guilford Press. 1991), 42
Charles Jencks What Then is Post-Modernism (London: Academy Editions,2009.), 15
Emily Hanna, “Spiral: Perspectives on an African-American Art Collectives” http://www.thoughtsthatcureadically.com and http://www.studiomuseum.org, August 27 and July 14, 2011 respectively, (accessed September 10, 2015)
Brandi Leigh, An introduction to the Group of Seven. The group of seven, http//arthistoryarchive.com The Art History Archive, 2008, (accessed September 11, 2015)
Sylvester Ogbechie , A Pause at the Threshold: Aka 1990, p.11
Hit single “Godwin” by Korede Bello, a Nigerian singer and songwriter
Aniakor interview with the author, the implication of the word among the Igbos of South East Nigeria is that if everyone contributes from his/her bank of knowledge, a better result will be achieved.
Ogbechie op.cit 10
Oloidi 1990: p. 12
Odutokun, 1995: p.9.
Jegede 1995, p. 7
Odutokun, 1995 : p. 8
Oguibe, 1995 p.12
Oloidi 1990, p.12
Aniakor, interview with the author.
Uche James Iroha, e-mail message to author, September 15, 2015.
Ozioma Onuzuluike, (p.5)
Docx, Edward “Postmodernism is dead” http://www.prospectmagazine.co.uk ,August 2011 (accessed September 16, 2015)
Hanna, Emily “Spiral: Perspectives on an African-American Art Collectives” http://www.thoughtsthatcureadically.com and http://www.studiomuseum.org, August 27 and July 14, 2011 respectively.
Jegede, Dele “The Way Forward: Aka 1995” (Enugu: AKA 1995)
Jencks, Charles. “What then is Post-Modernism?” (London: Academy Editions, 1996.)
Kellner, Douglas and Steven Best Postmodern Theory. New York: The Guilford Press. 1991
Leigh, Brandi “An introduction to the Group of Seven” http//arthistoryarchive.com The Art History Archive, 2008, (accessed September 11, 2015)
Odutokun, Gani “A Perennial Fountain: Aka 1995” (Enugu: AKA 1995)
Ogbechie, Sylvester “A Pause at the Threshold: Aka 1990,” (Enugu: AKA 1990)
Oguibe, Olu “Signs of Difference” (Enugu: AKA 1995)
Oloidi, Ola “A Force in the Nigerian Artistic Circle: Aka 1990” (Enugu: AKA 1990)
Onuzulike, Ozioma “The Fulfillment of a Vision: AKA in the Eyes of a Young Art Critic” (Enugu: Pearls and Gold, 2005.)